Motivation enhancement

Motivation enhancement is an increased desire to perform tasks and accomplish goals in a productive manner. [1] [2] [3] This includes tasks and goals that would normally be considered too monotonous or overwhelming to fully commit oneself to. A number of factors (which often, but not always, co-occur) reflect or contribute to task motivation: namely, wanting to complete a task, enjoying it or being interested in it. [3] Motivation may also be supported by closely related factors, such as positive mood, alertness, energy, and the absence of anxiety. Although motivation is a state, there are trait-like differences in the motivational states that people typically bring to tasks, just as there are differences in cognitive ability. [2] Motivation enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as stimulation and thought acceleration in a manner which further increases one's productivity. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of stimulant and nootropic compounds, such as amphetamine [2] [4] , methylphenidate [2] , nicotine [5] , and modafinil [6] . However, it may also occur to a much lesser extent under the influence of certain opioids [7] [8] , and GABAergic depressants [7] .

References

  1. Kjærsgaard, T. (2015). Enhancing motivation by use of prescription stimulants: The ethics of motivation enhancement. AJOB Neuroscience, 6(1), 4-10. | https://doi.org/10.1080/21507740.2014.990543
  2. [1][2][3][4] Ilieva, I. P., & Farah, M. J. (2013). Enhancement stimulants: perceived motivational and cognitive advantages. Frontiers in neuroscience, 7, 198. | https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2013.00198
  3. [1][2] Nyholm, S. (2015). Motivation-enhancements and domain-specific values. AJOB Neuroscience, 6(1), 37-39. | https://doi.org/10.1080/21507740.2014.995313
  4. Terbeck, S. (2013). Why students bother taking Adderall: Measurement validity of self-reports. AJOB Neuroscience, 4(1), 21-22. | https://doi.org/10.1080/21507740.2012.762064
  5. Sagara, H., Kitamura, Y., Esumi, S., Sendo, T., Araki, H., & Gomita, Y. (2008). Motivational effects of nicotine as measured by the runway method using priming stimulation of intracranial self-stimulation behavior. Acta Med Okayama, 62, 227-233. | https://doi.org/10.18926/AMO/30940
  6. Young, J. W., & Geyer, M. A. (2010). Action of modafinil—increased motivation via the dopamine transporter inhibition and D1 receptors?. Biological psychiatry, 67(8), 784-787. | https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.biopsych.2009.12.015
  7. [1][2] Ting-A-Kee, R., & van der Kooy, D. (2012). The neurobiology of opiate motivation. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine, 2(10), a012096. | https://dx.doi.org/10.1101%2Fcshperspect.a012096
  8. Riters, L. V. (2010). Evidence for opioid involvement in the motivation to sing. Journal of chemical neuroanatomy, 39(2), 141-150. | https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.jchemneu.2009.03.008

Tags

cognitive
enhancement
nootropic
stimulant

Contributors

The following people contributed to the content of this article:

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