Sleepiness

Sleepiness (also known as drowsiness) is a state of near-sleep, or a strong desire for sleep without feeling a decrease in one's physical energy levels. [1] [2] [3] This state is independent of a circadian rhythm [1] ; so, unlike sedation), this effect does not necessarily decrease physical energy levels but instead decreases ##int-link|to="/effects/wakefulness"{wakefulness. It results in a propensity for tired, clouded, and sleep-prone behaviour. This can lead into a decreased motivation to perform tasks, as the increase in one's desire to sleep begins to outweigh other considerations. Prolonged exposure to this effect without appropriate rest can lead to cognitive fatigue and a range of other cognitive suppressions. Sleepiness is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of a wide variety of compounds such as cannabinoids [4] , GABAergic depressants [5] [6] , opioids [7] , antipsychotics [8] [9] , some antihistamines [10] , and certain psychedelics such as LSA or 2C-C. However, it is worth noting that the few compounds which selectively induce this effect without a number of other accompanying effects are referred to as "hypnotics".

References

  1. [1][2] American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.), 829. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. | https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.GlossaryofTechnicalTerms
  2. Guilleminault, C., & Brooks, S. N. (2001). Excessive daytime sleepiness: a challenge for the practising neurologist. Brain, 124(8), 1482-1491. | https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/124.8.1482
  3. Bereshpolova, Y., Stoelzel, C. R., Zhuang, J., Amitai, Y., Alonso, J. M., & Swadlow, H. A. (2011). Getting drowsy? Alert/nonalert transitions and visual thalamocortical network dynamics. Journal of Neuroscience, 31(48), 17480-17487. | https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2262-11.2011
  4. Ware, M. A., Wang, T., Shapiro, S., Robinson, A., Ducruet, T., Huynh, T., ... & Collet, J. P. (2010). Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 182(14), E694-E701. | https://doi.org/10.1503%2Fcmaj.091414
  5. Landauer, A. A., & Howat, P. (1983). Low and moderate alcohol doses, psychomotor performance and perceived drowsiness. Ergonomics, 26(7), 647-657. | https://doi.org/10.1080%2F00140138308963386
  6. Greenblatt, D. J., Shader, R. I., & Abernethy, D. R. (1983). Current status of benzodiazepines. New England Journal of Medicine, 309(7), 410-416. | https://doi.org/10.1056%2FNEJM198308183090705
  7. Corey, P. J., Heck, A. M., & Weathermon, R. A. (1999). Amphetamines to counteract opioid-induced sedation. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 33(12), 1362-1366. | https://doi.org/10.1345/aph.19024
  8. Van Putten, T., May, P. R., Marder, S. R., & Wittmann, L. A. (1981). Subjective response to antipsychotic drugs. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38(2), 187-190. | https://doi.org/10.1001%2Farchpsyc.1981.01780270073010
  9. Artaloytia, J. F., Arango, C., Lahti, A., Sanz, J., Pascual, A., Cubero, P., ... & Palomo, T. (2006). Negative signs and symptoms secondary to antipsychotics: a double-blind, randomized trial of a single dose of placebo, haloperidol, and risperidone in healthy volunteers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(3), 488-493. | https://doi.org/10.1176%2Fappi.ajp.163.3.488
  10. Weiler, J. M., Bloomfield, J. R., Woodworth, G. G., Grant, A. R., Layton, T. A., Brown, T. L., ... & Watson, G. S. (2000). Effects of fexofenadine, diphenhydramine, and alcohol on driving performance: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in the Iowa driving simulator. Annals of Internal Medicine, 132(5), 354-363. | https://doi.org/10.7326%2F0003-4819-132-5-200003070-00004

Tags

antipsychotic
cognitive
depressant
gabaergic
suppression

Contributors

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