Confusion

Confusion is an impairment of abstract thinking demonstrated by an inability to think with one’s customary clarity and coherence. [1] Within the context of substance use, it is commonly experienced as a persistent inability to grasp or comprehend concepts and situations which would otherwise be perfectly understandable during sobriety. The intensity of this effect seems to to be further increased with unfamiliarity [2] in either setting or substance ingested. Confusion is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as delirium, delusions, and short-term memory suppression in a manner which further increases the person's lack of comprehension. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics [3] , dissociatives [4] , synthetic cannabinoids [5] , and deliriants [6] [7] . However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of heavy dosages of benzodiazepines [8] and antipsychotics [7] .

References

  1. Burns, A., Gallagley, A., & Byrne, J. (2004). Delirium. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 75(3), 362-367. | http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2003.023366
  2. Sheehan, P. W., & Lewis, S. E. (1974). Subjects' reports of confusion in consciousness and the arousal of imagery. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 38(3), 731-734. | https://doi.org/10.2466%2Fpms.1974.38.3.731
  3. Krebs, T. S., & Johansen, P. Ø. (2013). Psychedelics and mental health: a population study. PloS one, 8(8), e63972. | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063972
  4. Mozayani, A. (2003). Phencyclidine-Effects on Human Performance and Behavior. Forensic science review, 15(1), 61-74. | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26256594
  5. Chase, P. B., Hawkins, J., Mosier, J., Jimenez, E., Boesen, K., Logan, B. K., & Walter, F. G. (2016). Differential physiological and behavioral cues observed in individuals smoking botanical marijuana versus synthetic cannabinoid drugs. Clinical Toxicology, 54(1), 14-19. | https://doi.org/10.3109/15563650.2015.1101769
  6. [1][2] Kalisch Ellett, L. M., Pratt, N. L., Ramsay, E. N., Barratt, J. D., & Roughead, E. E. (2014). Multiple anticholinergic medication use and risk of hospital admission for confusion or dementia. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 62(10), 1916-1922. | https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.13054
  7. Nicholson, K. L., & Balster, R. L. (2001). GHB: a new and novel drug of abuse. Drug and alcohol dependence, 63(1), 1-22. | https://doi.org/10.1016/S0376-8716(00)00191-5

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cognitive
suppression

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