Anxiety

Anxiety is the experience of negative feelings of apprehension, worry, and general unease. [1] These feelings can range from subtle and ignorable to intense and overwhelming enough to trigger panic attacks or feelings of impending doom. Anxiety is often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as restlessness, difficulty concentrating, irritability, and muscular tension. [2] Fear is the emotional response to a real or perceived imminent threat, whereas anxiety is the anticipation of future threat. Obviously, these two states overlap, but they also differ, with fear more often associated with surges of autonomic arousal necessary for fight or flight, thoughts of immediate danger, and escape behaviours, and anxiety more often associated with muscle tension and vigilance in preparation for future danger and cautious or avoidant behaviours. [2] [3] This focus of anticipated danger may be internally or externally derived. [1] Psychoactive substance-induced anxiety can be caused as an inescapable effect of the drug itself [2] , by a lack of experience with the substance or its intensity, as an enhancement of a pre-existing state of mind, or by the experience of negative hallucinations. Anxiety is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as depression and irritability. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as cannabinoids [4] , psychedelics [5] , dissociatives, and deliriants [6] . However, it can also occur during the withdrawal symptoms of GABAergic depressants [7] and during stimulant comedowns [8] .

References

  1. [1][2] American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.), 818. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. | https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.GlossaryofTechnicalTerms
  2. [1][2][3] American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.), 189-190. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. | https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm05
  3. Barkus, C., McHugh, S. B., Sprengel, R., Seeburg, P. H., Rawlins, J. N. P., & Bannerman, D. M. (2010). Hippocampal NMDA receptors and anxiety: at the interface between cognition and emotion. European journal of pharmacology, 626(1), 49-56. | https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.10.014
  4. Crippa, J. A., Zuardi, A. W., Martín‐Santos, R., Bhattacharyya, S., Atakan, Z., McGuire, P., & Fusar‐Poli, P. (2009). Cannabis and anxiety: a critical review of the evidence. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 24(7), 515-523. | https://doi.org/10.1002/hup.1048
  5. Wolbach, A. B., Miner, E. J., & Isbell, H. (1962). Comparison of psilocin with psilocybin, mescaline and LSD-25. Psychopharmacology, 3(3), 219-223. | https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00412109
  6. Fontaine, R., Chouinard, G., & Annable, L. (1984). Rebound anxiety in anxious patients after abrupt withdrawal of benzodiazepine treatment. Am J Psychiatry, 141(7), 848-852. | https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.141.7.848
  7. Williamson, S., Gossop, M., Powis, B., Griffiths, P., Fountain, J., & Strang, J. (1997). Adverse effects of stimulant drugs in a community sample of drug users. Drug and alcohol dependence, 44(2-3), 87-94. | https://doi.org/10.1016/S0376-8716(96)01324-5
  8. [1][2] American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.), 826. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. | https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.GlossaryofTechnicalTerms

Tags

cannabinoid
cognitive
deliriant
enhancement
psychedelic

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