Time distortion

Time distortion is an effect that makes the passage of time feel difficult to keep track of and wildly distorted. [1] It is usually felt in two different forms, time dilation and time compression. [2] However, there are two other less common forms in which this effect can manifest as. These are described and documented below:

Time dilation

Time dilation can be described as the feeling that time has slowed down. This commonly occurs during intense hallucinogenic experiences and seems to at least partially stem from the fact that during an intense trip, abnormally large amounts of experience are felt in very short periods of time. This can create the illusion that more time has passed than actually has. For example, at the end of certain experiences, one may feel that they have subjectively undergone days, weeks, months, years, or even infinite periods of time. Time dilation is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as delusions, thought loops, novelty enhancement, and internal hallucinations in a manner which may lead one into perceiving a disproportionately large number of events considering the amount of time that has actually passed in the real world. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, deliriants, and cannabinoids.

Analysis

Studies have demonstrated that psilocin, the active compound in psychedelic mushrooms, significantly impairs a person's ability to gauge time intervals longer than 2.5 seconds, impairs their ability to synchronize to inter-beat intervals longer than 2 seconds, and reduces their "preferred" tapping rate. [3] [4] These results are consistent with the drug's role in affecting prefrontal cortex activity, and the role that the prefrontal cortex is known to play in time perception.{citation needed}

Time compression

Time compression can be described as the experience of time speeding up and passing much quicker than it usually would while sober. For example, during this state, a person may realize that an entire evening has passed them by in what feels like only a couple of hours. This commonly occurs under the influence of stimulating compounds and seems to at least partially stem from the fact that during intense levels of stimulation, people typically become hyper-focused on activities and tasks in a manner which can allow time to pass them by without realizing it. However, the same experience can also occur on depressant compounds which induce amnesia. This occurs due to the way in which a person can literally forget everything that has happened while still experiencing the effects of the substance, thus giving the impression that they have suddenly jumped forward in time. Time compression is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as memory suppression, focus enhancement, stimulation, and amnesia in a manner which may lead one into perceiving a disproportionately small number of events considering the amount of time that has actually passed in the real world. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of stimulating or amnesic compounds, such as amphetamines, benzodiazepines, entactogens, and GABAergic depressants.

Time reversal

Time reversal can be described as perceiving that the events, hallucinations, and experiences that occurred around one's self within the previous several minutes to several hours are spontaneously playing backwards in a manner similar to that of a rewinding VHS tape. During this reversal, the person's cognition and train of thought typically continues to play forward in a coherent and linear manner while they watch the external environment around them and their body's physical actions play in reverse. This can either occur in real time, with 5 minutes of time reversal taking approximately 5 minutes to fully rewind, or it can occur in a manner which is sped up, with 5 minutes of time reversal taking less than a minute. Once the person arrives back at their starting point, they typically find that they can then choose to take a different path than that which they experienced the first time around. Since literal time travel as a result of taking a hallucinogenic compound is a complete impossibility, it can reasonably be speculated that the experience of time reversal may occur through a combination of internal hallucinations and errors in memory encoding. Time reversal is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as internal hallucinations, thought loops, and deja vu. It is most commonly induced under the influence of extremely heavy dosages of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants.

References

  1. N Stanciu, C., & M Penders, T. (2016). Hallucinogen Persistent Perception Disorder Induced by New Psychoactive Substituted Phenethylamines; A Review with Illustrative Case. Current Psychiatry Reviews, 12(2), 221-223. | http://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/ben/cpsr/2016/00000012/00000002/art00013
  2. Nichols, D. E. (2016). Psychedelics. Pharmacological reviews, 68(2), 264-355. | https://dx.doi.org/10.1124%2Fpr.115.011478
  3. Effects of varied doses of psilocybin on time interval reproduction in human subjects (sciencedirect.com) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304394008001791
  4. Chem Lab: Shrooms Make Time Feel Slower | https://www.wired.com/2008/02/chem-lab-shroom/

Tags

cognitive
novel
psychedelic

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